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5 Nursing Diagnosis for TB Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a contagious infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tubeculosis.

Tuberculosis is classified as airborne disease that is spread by droplet nuclei are expelled into the air by infected individuals in the active phase. Whenever the patient is coughing may issue a 3000 droplet nuclei. Transmission generally occurs indoors where droplet nuclei can stay in the air for much longer. Under direct sunlight tubercle bacilli die rapidly but in a dark humid chamber can last up to several hours. Two critical success factors in new individual exposure Tuberculosis ie the concentration of droplet nuclei in the air and the length of time individuals breathe in contaminated air in addition to the immune system is concerned.

In addition to transmission through the respiratory tract (most frequently), M. tuberculosis can also enter the body through the digestive tract and open sores on the skin (more rarely).

Tuberculosis is often dubbed "the great imitator" is a disease that has many similarities with other diseases that also gives common symptoms such as weakness and fever. In some patients the symptoms are not clear so neglected sometimes even asymptomatic.

Clinical Manifestation of pulmonary TB can be divided into 2 groups, symptoms of respiratory and systemic symptoms:
Respiratory symptoms, including:
a. cough
Cough symptoms occur earliest and is the disorder most often complain about. At first non productive and sputum mixed with blood even when there is tissue damage.
b. coughing up blood
Blood in the sputum varied issued, it may seem in the form of lines or spots of blood, blood clots or fresh blood in a number of very much. Coughing up blood due to rupture of blood vessels. Cough severity depending on the size of blood vessels to rupture.
c. shortness of breath
This phenomenon is found when the damage was extensive lung parenchyma or because there are things that accompany such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, anemia and others.
d. chest pain
Chest pain in pulmonary TB include a mild pleuritic pain. These symptoms occur when the neural system in the pleura is affected.

5 Nursing Diagnosis for TB  Tuberculosis

5 Nursing Diagnosis for TB Tuberculosis

Nursing diagnoses that commonly occurs in clients with pulmonary tuberculosis are as follows:

1. Ineffective airway clearance

relate to:
  • thick secretions or blood secretions,
  • weakness,
  • bad cough effort,
  • edema, tracheal / pharyngeal.

2. Impaired gas exchange
  • related to:
  • reduced effectiveness of the surface of the lung,
  • atelectasis,
  • alveolar capillary membrane damage,
  • secretions are thick,
  • bronchial edema.

3. Risk for Infection and spread of infection

related to:
  • decreased immune system,
  • decreased ciliary function,
  • secretions are settled,
  • tissue damage caused by the spread of infection,
  • malnutrition,
  • contaminated by the environment,
  • lack of knowledge about infectious germs.

4. Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements

related to:
  • fatigue,
  • frequent coughing,
  • production of sputum,
  • dyspnea,
  • anorexia,
  • decline in financial capability.

5. Knowledge Deficit: about the condition, treatment, prevention

related to:
  • nothing is explained,
  • interpretation is wrong,
  • the information is incomplete / inaccurate,
  • limited knowledge / cognitive.

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