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Four Techniques of Physical Examination

Four Techniques of Physical Examination

Four Techniques of Physical Examination


1. Inspection

Inspection is the examination conducted by looking at the body part being examined through observation. Adequate light is necessary for nurses to distinguish colors, shapes and body hygiene clients. Focus inspections on every part of the body include: size, color, shape, position, symmetrical. And compared the results to normal and abnormal body parts with each other body parts. Example: yellow eyes (jaundice), there is a goitre in the neck, bluish skin (cyanosis), and others.

2. Palpation

Palpation is a technique that uses the sense of touch. Hands and fingers are sensitive instruments used to collect data, eg on: temperature, turgor, shape, moisture, vibration, size.

The steps that need to be considered during palpation:
  • Create a comfortable and relaxing environment.
  • Hand nurses should be in warm and dry.
  • Nurses Fingernails should be cut short.
  • All the painful palpated last.

For example: a tumor, edema, crepitus (bone fracture), and others.

3. Percussion

Percussion is the examination by way of tapping certain parts of the body surface to compare with other body parts (left and right) with the goal of producing sound.

Percussion aims to identify the location, size, shape and consistency of the network. Nurses use both hands as a tool to produce sound.

4. Auscultation

Is a physical examination performed by listening to the sound produced by the body. Typically use a device called a stethoscope. Things that are heard are: heart sounds, breath sounds and bowel sounds.

The sound is not normal that can be auscultated in breath are:
  • Rales: the sound produced from the sticky exudate when the channels of smooth breathing expands on inspiration (rales fine, medium, coarse). For instance on the client pneumonia, tuberculosis.
  • Ronchi: low and very rude tone sounds both during inspiration and during expiration. Ronchi characteristic is lost when the client cough. For example in pulmonary edema.
  • Wheezing: the sound is heard "ngiii .... K". can be found on the phases of inspiration and expiration. For example in acute bronchitis, asthma.
  • Pleural Friction Rub; noise that sounded "dry" sound like rubbing sandpaper on wood. For instance on the client with pleural inflammation.

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