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Nursing Care Plan and 5 Diagnosis for Bronchitis

Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi are usually the trachea and larynx, so often named by laringotracheobronchitis. This inflammation can arise as airway abnormalities alone or as part of a systemic disease, for example in morbili, pertussis, diphtheria, and typhoid abdominalis.

The term chronic bronchitis showed abnormalities in the bronchus that are chronic (long lasting) and is caused by various factors, including the factors that originate outside of the bronchus and bronchus itself. Chronic bronchitis is a condition associated with excessive tracheobronchial mucus production, causing a cough that occurs for at least three months in a year for more than two consecutive years.

There are three main factors that affect the incidence of bronchitis is smoking, infection and pollution.

1. Smoking
According to the Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Smoking Control, smoking is a major cause of bronchitis. There is a close relationship between smoking and decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second. In pathological cigarettes associated with bronchial mucus gland hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of respiratory epithelium can also cause acute bronchoconstriction.

2. Infection
Most often mistaken for bronchitis exacerbations preceded by a viral infection which then causes secondary bacterial infection. Bacteria isolated most is Hemophilus influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

3. Pollution
Pollution is not so great influence as a causative factor, but when added to a higher risk of smoking. The chemicals can also cause bronchitis are reducing agents such as O2, oxidizing substances such as N2O, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ozone.

Acute bronchitis can be a complication of pathologic abnormalities in several organs, namely:
  • Chronic heart disease, which is caused by pathologic abnormalities in the valves and myocardium. Chronic congestion on the wall of the bronchus weaken resistance to bacterial infection easily occur.
  • Paranasalis sinus infections and oral cavity, the area is a source of bacterial infections that can invade the wall of the bronchus.
  • Dilatation of the bronchi (bronchiectasis), cause the composition and function of bacterial infection of the bronchial walls so easily happen.
  • Smoking can cause paralysis of the bronchus mucous membranes vibrating bristles that impaired mucus drainage. The set of mucus is a good medium for bacterial growth.

5 Nursing Diagnosis for Bronchitis

1. Ineffective airway clearance r / t increased production of secretions.

2. Impaired gas exchange r / t obstruction of the airway by secretions, spasm of the bronchi.

3. Ineffective breathing pattern r / t bronchoconstriction, mucus.

4. Imbalanced Nutrition Less than Body Requirements r / t dyspnoea, anorexia, nausea, vomiting.

5. Risk for infection r / t secretions persistence, chronic disease processes.

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