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Acute Pain and Anxiety - NCP for Intestinal Obstruction

Intestinal obstruction (ileus) is a disorder passage of intestinal contents due to blockage resulting in accumulation of fluid and air in the proximal part of the blockage. As a result of the blockage, an increase in intraluminal pressure and intestinal disturbances resorption and increased intestinal secretion. Combined with vomiting as a result of an obstruction or reflux due to regurgitation of stomach full of lead to dehydration, febrile and shock. Obstruction ileus is also an urgency in abdominal surgery is often encountered, is 60-70% of all cases of acute abdomen that is not acute appendicitis. Obstructive ileus also called mechanical ileus.

Based on the mechanism of the obstruction, then the mechanical obstruction can be divided into:
A. Obstruction of the bowel lumen (Intra luminaire), namely:
  • Polypoid tumor.
  • Intussusception.
  • Gallstone ileus.
  • Feces, meconium bezoar (infants).
B. Abnormalities of the intestinal wall (Intramural), mostly congenital in infants:
  • Atresia.
  • Stenosis.
  • Duplication.
In adult patients:
  • Neoplasms.
  • Inflammation.
  • Crohn's disease.
  • Post radiation.
  • Gut connection.
C. Abnormalities outside the colon (Luminaire)
  • Adhesion.
  • External hernia.
  • Neoplasms.
  • Abscess.

Clinical Manifestations : Small Bowel Obstruction

Complaints arising in patients with intestinal obstruction is typical:
  • Abdominal pain, vomiting, obstipation, abdominal distention, no flatus and bowel movement.
  • These painful cramps can be repeated at intervals of 4-5 minutes on intestinal obstruction proximal part. In intestinal obstruction distal part of the frequency increases rarely.
  • After a long obstructed the cramping pain will diminish or disappear because of intestinal distention or movement will be reduced after the strangulation with peritonitis, abdominal pain became severe and continuous.
  • At the proximal intestinal obstruction occurred profuse vomiting with mild distension.
  • At the distal intestinal obstruction, vomiting rarely with vomit the contents of feces, but more severe distension.
  • Increased abdominal circle occurs because of the removal of liquids and gases within the lumen of the intestine due to obstruction in the distal part of the intestine and colon, or paralytic ileus.
  • In the early stages, normal vital signs. Along with the loss of fluid and electrolytes, dehydration will occur with the clinical manifestations of tachycardia and postural hypotension. The body temperature is usually normal but sometimes it can be increased.
  • Physical examination found the presence of fever, tachycardia, hypotension and severe dehydration symptoms.
  • Fever indicates obstruction strangulate. On examination the abdomen appeared distended abdomen obtained and increased peristaltic (sounds borborygmi). In advanced stages where the obstruction continues, peristaltic will weaken and disappear. The presence of feces mixed with blood on rectal examination can toucher suspected malignancy and intussusception.

Nursing Diagnosis : Acute Pain related to an increase in intestinal intraluminal pressure.

characterized by: grimacing expression, complained of feeling pain in the abdominal area.

Goal: expected pain is resolved or controlled.

Outcomes:
  • Revealed a decrease in discomfort.
  • Stating pain at a tolerable level, indicating relaxed.
  • Showed pain control measures.

Intervention:

1) Assess pain with PQRST technique.
Rationale: Monitor and provide an overview of the characteristics of the client and the pain indicators in subsequent interventions.

2) Maintain bed rest in a comfortable position.
Rationale: Bed rest reduces energy use and help control pain and reduce muscle contractions.

3) Teach relaxation or distraction techniques such as listening to music or watching tv.
Rational: to help clients feel more relaxed until the pain can be reduced.

4) Collaboration of analgetic drugs.
Rational: analgesic drugs will block the pain receptors so that pain can not be perceived.



Nursing Diagnosis : Anxiety related to change in health status.

characterized by: increasing the pain of powerlessness, expressed concern.

Goal: expected to decrease anxiety.

Outcomes:

The client will use relaxation techniques to relieve anxiety.

Intervention:
1) Assess the client's level of anxiety.
Rationale: Knowing the coping abilities of individuals.

2) Take time to listen to express anxiety and fear; provide calming.
Rationale: The client will feel better when heard. trusting relationship can be established with the client.

3) Maintain a quiet environment.
Rationale: quiet surroundings make the client more relaxed and can reduce anxiety.

4) Provide diversion through television, radio, games for lowering anxiety.
Rational: to divert the mind from stress and anxiety.

5) Describe the procedures and actions and give an explanation of the strengthening of disease, and prognosis action.
Rationale: patient involvement in care planning can provide a sense of control and helps reduce anxiety.

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