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Causes and Symptoms of Aortic Valve Stenosis


Definition of Aortic Valve Stenosis

Aortic Valve Stenosis (Aortic stenosis) is a narrowing of the aortic valve orifice, which causes increased resistance to blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta.



Causes

In North America and Western Europe, aortic valve stenosis is a major disease in the elderly, which is a result of scar tissue formation and accumulation of calcium in the valve leaflets. Aortic valve stenosis as this occurs after the age of 60 years, but new symptoms usually appear after the age of 70-80 years.

Aortic valve stenosis can also be caused by rheumatic fever in childhood. In this state is usually accompanied by abnormalities in either the mitral valve stenosis, regurgitation or both.

In younger people, the most common cause is a congenital abnormality. In infancy, aortic valve narrowing may not cause problems, new problems arise in the growth of children. Valve size is not changed, while the heart dilated and trying to pump large amounts of blood through the small valve.

The valve may only have two leaves that should have been three, or has an abnormal shape like a funnel. Over time, the hole / opening the valve, often become stiff and narrowed due to the accumulation of calcium deposits.



Symptoms

Left ventricular wall thickening due to ventricular trying to pump some blood through the narrow aortic valve. Enlarged heart muscle needs more blood from the coronary arteries. Insufficient blood supply will eventually cause chest pain (angina) at the time of patient activity.

Decreased blood flow can also damage the heart muscle, so that cardiac output is unable to meet the body's needs. Heart failure happens cause weakness and shortness of breath while doing activities. Patients with severe aortic valve stenosis may experience fainting during the activity, because blocking the narrow katupyang ventricle to pump enough blood to the arteries in the muscle, which has been widened to receive oxygen-rich blood.


Diagnosis

Diagnosis based on:
  • Typical heart murmur, which can be heard through a stethoscope
  • Abnormal pulse
  • Abnormalities in the ECG
  • Thickening of the heart wall that appears on a chest radiograph.

In patients who experience angina, shortness of breath, or fainting; to determine the cause and determine the severity of stenosis, can be done:
  • Echocardiography (cardiac imaging technique using ultrasonic waves)
  • Cardiac catheterization.

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