Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease is progressive, meaning the disease lasts a lifetime and is slowly deteriorating from year to year. In the course of this disease there are phases of acute exacerbation. Various factors play a role in the course of the disease, among other risk factors are factors that cause or exacerbate illnesses such as smoking, air pollution, environmental pollution, infection, genetic and weather changes.
The degree of airway obtruksi happened, and identification of components that allow for reversibility. Stage of the disease outside the lung and other diseases such as chronic sinusitis and pharyngitis. That ultimately these factors make further deterioration occurs sooner. To perform the management of COPD should consider these factors, so that the treatment of COPD for the better.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a broad classification of disorders that includes chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema and asthma, which is an irreversible condition associated with dyspnea on exertion and decreased air flow in and out of the lungs.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a lung disorder characterized by impaired lung function in the form of prolonged expiratory period caused by the narrowing of the airways and not much changed in the period of observation for some time.
Signs and symptoms will lead to two basic types:
- Have a dominant direction of the clinical picture of chronic bronchitis (blue bloater).
- Have a clinical picture towards emphysema (pink puffers).
Signs and symptoms are as follows:
- body weakness
- shortness of breath
- Shortness of breath on exertion and breath sounds
- prolonged expiratory
- form the barrel chest (Barrel Chest) in advanced disease
- the use of accessory muscles
- decreased breath sounds
- sometimes found paradoxical breathing
- leg edema, ascites and clubbing
10 List of Nanda Nursing Diagnosis for COPD
1. Ineffective airway clearance
- increased sputum production,
- ineffective cough,
- fatigue / lack of energy,
- bronchopulmonary infection.
- shortness of breath,
- airway irritants.
- ventilation perfusion inequality
- imbalance between oxygen supply with demand.
- sleeping position.
- fatigue secondary to increased respiratory effort and ventilation and oxygenation insufficiency.
- threat to self-concept,
- threat of death,
- purposes that are not being met.
- lack of socialization,
- low activity levels and an inability to work.
- lack of information,
- do not know the source of information.