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Retinoblastoma - Management, Complication, Signs and Symptoms

Retinoblastoma is eye cancer, which is found on the surface of the retina. This cancer is usually present in children below the age of six years and is usually diagnosed in children aged 1 to 2 years. Generally the two classifications are intraocular and extraocular retinoblastoma. About a two quarters of the cases are hereditary and have been
linked to a specific gene mutation. The cancer can occur in one or both eyes.

Examination for this condition includes an ophthalmic examination, ultrasound of the eyes, CT or MRI of the orbits, and examination of the cerebro- spinal fluid, and possibly bone marrow examination. Treatment of retinoblastoma includes laser surgery, cryotherapy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Signs and Symptoms of Retinoblastoma
  • Leukocoria complaints and symptoms are most often found.
  • Early sign of retinoblastoma is crossed eyes, red eyes or the presence of abnormal iris color.
  • Tumors with moderate size will give hypopyon symptoms, in the anterior chamber, uveitis, endophthalmitis, or a panoftalmitis.
  • Eyeball be great, if a tumor has spread widely within the eyeball.
  • If there is a tumor necrosis, there will be symptoms of severe sight.
  • Greatly decreased visual acuity.
  • Painful
  • In large tumors, the glass fills the entire cavity of the body so that the body of glass visible lumps yellowish white with veins on it.

Complication of Retinoblastoma

Complications of retinoblastoma among others; rubeosis iridis with glaucoma, lens dislocation into the anterior, uveitis, endophthalmitis, and pseudo inflammation. These symptoms can occur due to inflammation of retinoblastoma that are endophytic growth, and tumor cells escape into the corpus vitreous and anterior chamber and cause inflammation.

Management of Retinoblastoma

Depending on the size and location of the tumor

Small tumors:
  • cryotherapy
  • laser therapy
  • plaque radiotherapy
  • thermotherapy

Larger tumors:
  • chemotherapy
  • radiotherapy
  • surgery

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